Mongolia, historically Outer Mongolia, country located in north-central Asia. It is roughly oval in shape, measuring 1,486 miles (2,392 km) from west to east and, at its maximum, 782 miles (1,259 km) from north to south. Mongolia’s land area is roughly equivalent to that of the countries of western and central Europe, and it lies in a similar latitude range. The national capital, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolian: Ulan Bator) is in the north-central part of the country.
Landlocked Mongolia is located between Russia to the north and China to the south, deep within the interior of eastern Asia far from any ocean. The total land area of Mongolia is 1,564,116 square kilometres. The country has a marked continental climate, with long cold winters and short cool-to-hot summers. Its remarkable variety of scenery consists largely of upland steppes, semideserts, and deserts, although in the west and north forested high mountain ranges alternate with lake-dotted basins. Mongolia is largely a plateau, with an average elevation of about 5,180 feet (1,580 metres) above sea level. The highest peaks are in the Mongolian Altai Mountains (Mongol Altain Nuruu) in the southwest, a branch of the Altai Mountains system.
Mongolia has a population of just over 3.2 million people (2018), making it one of the least densely populated countries in the world. Official language is Mongolian, a language written in Cyrillic and in the traditional Mongolian script.
Ulaanbaatar /capital city/ is located on the bank of Tuul River. It lies at the foothills of Bogd Khaan Mountain at an altitude of 1350 meters above sea level, covering an area of 4700 sq.km. The city is administratively divided into districts and sub-districts. More than million people live in the Capital city. The Capital city of Mongolia represents the symbol of struggle of Mongolians for freedom and independence, and it provides the history of political, economic and religious center of an independent country.
Most of the city spreads from East to West along the main road, Enkh Taivny Orgon Choloo, also known as Peace Avenue. The center is Sukhbaatar Square, often simply known as 'the Square'. Sprawling suburbia is limited by the four majestic mountains that surround the city. The river to the South, the Tuul Gol, also somewhat limits the growth of suburban expansion.
The Flag of Mongolia consists of three equal bands, of alternating red, blue and red, with the soyombo national symbol centering the first red band in yellow. The central blue band is described as the eternal blue sky, while the side red bands represent the ability of Mongolia to thrive in its harsh environment. The soyombo is a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representations of fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the Taijitu or Yin-Yang symbol. The current flag was adopted on February 12, 1992, after the transition of Mongolia to a democracy. It is similar to the flag of 1949, except for the removal of the socialist star on top of the Soyombo.